EU Twinning Project TR08IBEN02 on "Improving Emissions Control"
Member State Partner: Umweltbundesamt GmbH (Environment Agency Austria)
Junior Member State Partner: Finnish Environment Institute SYKE
Beneficiary Country Institution: Turkish Ministry for Environment and Urbanisation
Project duration: 26 months (May 2011-July 2013 -- The project has been extended for two months through Addendum No.5)
Member State Experts involved: 38
Beneficiary Experts: 12
This project is co-financed by the European Union and the Republic of Turkey.
The Twinning Project TR08IBEN02 on Improving Emissions Control and the Technical Assistance Project (TR802.03/001) have similiar objectives towards improving emissions control in Turkey. Therefore activities will be harmonized and results shared.
Background Information to Pollutants and their Effects on Human Health and the Environment:
Sulphur dioxide (SO2) is emitted when fuels containing sulphur are burned. It contributes to acid deposition, the impacts of which can be significant, including adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems in rivers and lakes, and damage to forests.
Nitrogen oxides (NOX) are emitted during fuel combustion, such as by industrial facilities and the road transport sector. As with SO2, NOX contributes to acid deposition but also to eutrophication. Of the chemical species that comprise NOX, it is NO2 that is associated with adverse affects on health, as high concentrations cause inflammation of the airways and reduced lung function. NOX also contributes to the formation of secondary inorganic particulate matter and tropospheric O3.
Ammonia (NH3), like NOX, contributes to both eutrophication and acidification. The vast majority of NH3 emissions - around 94 % in Europe - come from the agricultural sector, from activities such as manure storage, slurry spreading and the use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilisers.
Non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), important O3 precursors, are emitted from a large number of sources including paint application, road transport, dry-cleaning and other solvent uses. Certain NMVOC species, such as benzene (C6H6) and 1.3-butadiene, are directly hazardous to human health. Biogenic NMVOCs are emitted by vegetation, with amounts dependent on the species and on temperature.